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Tags : PythonPython StringPython Float

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Strings in Python can take numeric values. Similar to other popular programming languages, Python supports Integer and Floating-point (or decimal) numbers and has separate data types assigned for them. Sometimes, there is a need for converting the numeric values taken in a string to an integer or a floating-point number.

This tutorial will introduce how to convert a string to a decimal in Python.

`float()`

Function to Convert a String to Decimal in PythonPython provides an in-built function called `float()`

that is utilized to transform a string or an integer to a floating-point value.

Here, we will enter a string and perform the `float()`

function on the given string.

The following code uses the `float()`

function to convert a string to decimal in Python.

`a = '5.54' x = float(a) print(x) `

The above code provides the following output:

`5.54 `

When a comma separates the numbers in the string and the `float()`

function is directly called on the string, then it gives a `ValueError`

.

The following example code will help you understand it better.

`a = "1,5.54" x = float(a) print(x) `

The above code provides the following output:

`Traceback (most recent call last): File "<string>", line 2, in <module> ValueError: could not convert string to float: '1,5.54' `

We can take a quick detour from the original code and use exception handling in this code to avoid this.

The `try...except`

statement is utilized for the purpose of exception handling in Python. The `try...except`

statement is divided into three blocks; all three of the blocks have a different purpose.

- The
`try`

block contains the cluster of code to be tested for any errors. - The
`except`

block is used to add exceptions and handle the errors of the code. - The
`finally`

block contains the statements that need to be executed and is ignored by the`try`

and`except`

blocks.

The following code utilizes exception handling on the original code given above to convert a string to decimal in Python.

`a = "1,5.54" try: x = float(a) except ValueError: print("Invalid Float number to be converted. ") `

The above code provides the following output:

`Invalid Float number to be converted. `

`float()`

Function to Convert a String to Decimal in PythonIn a given string, if we want to specify the number of decimal points that we want to have in the floating-point variable, then we can use string formatting along with the in-built `float()`

function.

The following code uses string formatting to convert a string to decimal in Python.

`a = "5.54231" x = float(a) x = "{:.2f}".format(x) print(x) `

The above code provides the following output:

`5.54 `

List comprehension is a relatively shorter and very graceful way to create lists that are to be formed based on given values of an already existing list.

We can use list comprehension and convert all the values within the list to floating-point values using the `float()`

method in the list comprehension.

The following code uses list comprehension to convert a list of strings to float in Python.

`lst= [ '1.22', '5.54', '6.858'] x = [float(i) for i in lst] print(x) `

The above code provides the following output.

`[1.22, 5.54, 6.858] `

`numpy.float()`

Function to Convert a String to Decimal in PythonThe term `NumPy`

is an acronym for Numerical Python. This library makes the use of arrays possible in Python. It also provides functions that help in manipulating these arrays.

The `numpy.float()`

function works similarly to the in-built `float()`

function in Python, with the only difference being that the `numpy.float()`

function is made to work with arrays. It always generates an array of floating-point values.

The following code uses the `numpy.float()`

function to convert a string to decimal in Python.

`import numpy as np lst= [ '1.22', '5.54', '6.858'] print(list(np.float_(lst))) `

The above code provides the following output:

`[1.22, 5.54, 6.858] `

`astype()`

Method From the `NumPy`

Library to Convert a String to Decimal in PythonThe `NumPy`

library contains an in-built `astype()`

method that assists in converting the data type of the given `NumPy`

array.

The following code uses the `astype()`

method from the `NumPy`

library to convert a string to decimal in Python.

`import numpy as np a = np.array(["1.22", "5.54", "6.858"]) x = a.astype(float) print(x) `

The above code provides the following output:

`[1.22 5.54 6.858] `

`decimal`

Module to Convert a String to Decimal in PythonThe `decimal`

module supplies functions that perform faster operations than the stock floating-point functions.

The `decimal.Decimal()`

function, which is a constructor, takes input as a numeric value and carries out the process to convert it to a decimal type, which is ideal for storing and representing the numeric values meanwhile strictly preserving the precision of the number.

The following code uses the `decimal`

module to convert a string to decimal in Python.

`from decimal import Decimal a = '5.54262' x = Decimal(a) print(x) `

The above code provides the following output:

`5.54262 `