How to convert a string to integer in C?

ID : 10192

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Tags : cstringatoic

Top 5 Answer for How to convert a string to integer in C?

vote vote

93

There is strtol which is better IMO. Also I have taken a liking in strtonum, so use it if you have it (but remember it's not portable):

long long      strtonum(const char *nptr, long long minval, long long maxval,      const char **errstr); 

You might also be interested in strtoumax and strtoimax which are standard functions in C99. For example you could say:

uintmax_t num = strtoumax(s, NULL, 10); if (num == UINTMAX_MAX && errno == ERANGE)     /* Could not convert. */ 

Anyway, stay away from atoi:

The call atoi(str) shall be equivalent to:

(int) strtol(str, (char **)NULL, 10) 

except that the handling of errors may differ. If the value cannot be represented, the behavior is undefined.

vote vote

89

Robust C89 strtol-based solution

With:

  • no undefined behavior (as could be had with the atoi family)
  • a stricter definition of integer than strtol (e.g. no leading whitespace nor trailing trash chars)
  • classification of the error case (e.g. to give useful error messages to users)
  • a "testsuite"
#include <assert.h> #include <ctype.h> #include <errno.h> #include <limits.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h>  typedef enum {     STR2INT_SUCCESS,     STR2INT_OVERFLOW,     STR2INT_UNDERFLOW,     STR2INT_INCONVERTIBLE } str2int_errno;  /* Convert string s to int out.  *  * @param[out] out The converted int. Cannot be NULL.  *  * @param[in] s Input string to be converted.  *  *     The format is the same as strtol,  *     except that the following are inconvertible:  *  *     - empty string  *     - leading whitespace  *     - any trailing characters that are not part of the number  *  *     Cannot be NULL.  *  * @param[in] base Base to interpret string in. Same range as strtol (2 to 36).  *  * @return Indicates if the operation succeeded, or why it failed.  */ str2int_errno str2int(int *out, char *s, int base) {     char *end;     if (s[0] == '\0' || isspace(s[0]))         return STR2INT_INCONVERTIBLE;     errno = 0;     long l = strtol(s, &end, base);     /* Both checks are needed because INT_MAX == LONG_MAX is possible. */     if (l > INT_MAX || (errno == ERANGE && l == LONG_MAX))         return STR2INT_OVERFLOW;     if (l < INT_MIN || (errno == ERANGE && l == LONG_MIN))         return STR2INT_UNDERFLOW;     if (*end != '\0')         return STR2INT_INCONVERTIBLE;     *out = l;     return STR2INT_SUCCESS; }  int main(void) {     int i;     /* Lazy to calculate this size properly. */     char s[256];      /* Simple case. */     assert(str2int(&i, "11", 10) == STR2INT_SUCCESS);     assert(i == 11);      /* Negative number . */     assert(str2int(&i, "-11", 10) == STR2INT_SUCCESS);     assert(i == -11);      /* Different base. */     assert(str2int(&i, "11", 16) == STR2INT_SUCCESS);     assert(i == 17);      /* 0 */     assert(str2int(&i, "0", 10) == STR2INT_SUCCESS);     assert(i == 0);      /* INT_MAX. */     sprintf(s, "%d", INT_MAX);     assert(str2int(&i, s, 10) == STR2INT_SUCCESS);     assert(i == INT_MAX);      /* INT_MIN. */     sprintf(s, "%d", INT_MIN);     assert(str2int(&i, s, 10) == STR2INT_SUCCESS);     assert(i == INT_MIN);      /* Leading and trailing space. */     assert(str2int(&i, " 1", 10) == STR2INT_INCONVERTIBLE);     assert(str2int(&i, "1 ", 10) == STR2INT_INCONVERTIBLE);      /* Trash characters. */     assert(str2int(&i, "a10", 10) == STR2INT_INCONVERTIBLE);     assert(str2int(&i, "10a", 10) == STR2INT_INCONVERTIBLE);      /* int overflow.      *      * `if` needed to avoid undefined behaviour      * on `INT_MAX + 1` if INT_MAX == LONG_MAX.      */     if (INT_MAX < LONG_MAX) {         sprintf(s, "%ld", (long int)INT_MAX + 1L);         assert(str2int(&i, s, 10) == STR2INT_OVERFLOW);     }      /* int underflow */     if (LONG_MIN < INT_MIN) {         sprintf(s, "%ld", (long int)INT_MIN - 1L);         assert(str2int(&i, s, 10) == STR2INT_UNDERFLOW);     }      /* long overflow */     sprintf(s, "%ld0", LONG_MAX);     assert(str2int(&i, s, 10) == STR2INT_OVERFLOW);      /* long underflow */     sprintf(s, "%ld0", LONG_MIN);     assert(str2int(&i, s, 10) == STR2INT_UNDERFLOW);      return EXIT_SUCCESS; } 

GitHub upstream.

Based on: https://stackoverflow.com/a/6154614/895245

vote vote

78

Don't use functions from ato... group. These are broken and virtually useless. A moderately better solution would be to use sscanf, although it is not perfect either.

To convert string to integer, functions from strto... group should be used. In your specific case it would be strtol function.

vote vote

65

You can code atoi() for fun:

int my_getnbr(char *str) {   int result;   int puiss;    result = 0;   puiss = 1;   while (('-' == (*str)) || ((*str) == '+'))   {       if (*str == '-')         puiss = puiss * -1;       str++;   }   while ((*str >= '0') && (*str <= '9'))   {       result = (result * 10) + ((*str) - '0');       str++;   }   return (result * puiss); } 

You can also make it recursive, which can fold in 3 lines.

vote vote

51

Just wanted to share a solution for unsigned long aswell.

unsigned long ToUInt(char* str) {     unsigned long mult = 1;     unsigned long re = 0;     int len = strlen(str);     for(int i = len -1 ; i >= 0 ; i--)     {         re = re + ((int)str[i] -48)*mult;         mult = mult*10;     }     return re; } 

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