There are a number of reasons that come to mind, several being closely related:
Fail-fast: If it's going to fail, best to fail sooner rather than later. This allows problems to be caught closer to their source, making them easier to identify and recover from. It also avoids wasting CPU cycles on code that's bound to fail.
Intent: Throwing the exception explicitly makes it clear to maintainers that the error is there purposely and the author was aware of the consequences.
Consistency: If the error were allowed to happen naturally, it might not occur in every scenario. If no mapping is found, for example,
remappingFunction would never be used and the exception wouldn't be thrown. Validating input in advance allows for more deterministic behavior and clearer documentation.
Stability: Code evolves over time. Code that encounters an exception naturally might, after a bit of refactoring, cease to do so, or do so under different circumstances. Throwing it explicitly makes it less likely for behavior to change inadvertently.