ios - MAX / MIN function in Objective C that avoid casting issues

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Top 3 Answer for ios - MAX / MIN function in Objective C that avoid casting issues

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94

Enabling -Wsign-compare, as suggested by FDinoff's answer is a good idea, but I thought it might be worth explaining the reason behind this in some more detail, as it's a quite common pitfall.

The problem isn't really with the MAX macro in particular, but with a) subtracting from an unsigned integer in a way that leads to an overflow, and b) (as the warning suggests) with how the compiler handles the comparison of signed and unsigned values in general.

The first issue is pretty easy to explain: When you subtract from an unsigned integer and the result would be negative, the result "overflows" to a very large positive value, because an unsigned integer cannot represent negative values. So [@"short" length] - 10 will evaluate to 4294967291.

What might be more surprising is that even without the subtraction, something like MAX([@"short" length], -10) will not yield the correct result (it would evaluate to -10, even though [@"short" length] would be 5, which is obviously larger). This has nothing to do with the macro, something like if ([@"short" length] > -10) { ... } would lead to the same problem (the code in the if-block would not execute).

So the general question is: What happens exactly when you compare an unsigned integer with a signed one (and why is there a warning for that in the first place)? The compiler will convert both values to a common type, according to certain rules that can lead to surprising results.

Quoting from Understand integer conversion rules [cert.org]:

  • If the type of the operand with signed integer type can represent all of the values of the type of the operand with unsigned integer type, the operand with unsigned integer type is converted to the type of the operand with signed integer type.
  • Otherwise, both operands are converted to the unsigned integer type corresponding to the type of the operand with signed integer type.

(emphasis mine)

Consider this example:

int s = -1; unsigned int u = 1; NSLog(@"%i", s < u); // -> 0 

The result will be 0 (false), even though s (-1) is clearly less then u (1). This happens because both values are converted to unsigned int, as int cannot represent all values that can be contained in an unsigned int.

It gets even more confusing if you change the type of s to long. Then, you'd get the same (incorrect) result on a 32 bit platform (iOS), but in a 64 bit Mac app it would work just fine! (explanation: long is a 64 bit type there, so it can represent all 32 bit unsigned int values.)

So, long story short: Don't compare unsigned and signed integers, especially if the signed value is potentially negative.

vote vote

89

You probably don't have enough compiler warnings turned on. If you turn on -Wsign-compare (which can be turned on with -Wextra) you will generate a warning that looks like the following

warning: signed and unsigned type in conditional expression [-Wsign-compare] 

This allows you to place the casts in the right places if necessary and you shouldn't need to rewrite the MAX or MIN macros

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75

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