How do I get a substring of a string in Python?

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Top 5 Answer for How do I get a substring of a string in Python?

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>>> x = "Hello World!" >>> x[2:] 'llo World!' >>> x[:2] 'He' >>> x[:-2] 'Hello Worl' >>> x[-2:] 'd!' >>> x[2:-2] 'llo Worl' 

Python calls this concept "slicing" and it works on more than just strings. Take a look here for a comprehensive introduction.

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Just for completeness as nobody else has mentioned it. The third parameter to an array slice is a step. So reversing a string is as simple as:


Or selecting alternate characters would be:

"H-e-l-l-o- -W-o-r-l-d"[::2] # outputs "Hello World" 

The ability to step forwards and backwards through the string maintains consistency with being able to array slice from the start or end.

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Substr() normally (i.e. PHP and Perl) works this way:

s = Substr(s, beginning, LENGTH) 

So the parameters are beginning and LENGTH.

But Python's behaviour is different; it expects beginning and one after END (!). This is difficult to spot by beginners. So the correct replacement for Substr(s, beginning, LENGTH) is

s = s[ beginning : beginning + LENGTH] 
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A common way to achieve this is by string slicing.

MyString[a:b] gives you a substring from index a to (b - 1).

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One example seems to be missing here: full (shallow) copy.

>>> x = "Hello World!" >>> x 'Hello World!' >>> x[:] 'Hello World!' >>> x==x[:] True >>> 

This is a common idiom for creating a copy of sequence types (not of interned strings), [:]. Shallow copies a list, see Python list slice syntax used for no obvious reason.

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